Seventh grade social studies is a year-long course of study of the history of Texas from early times to the present in which students build upon the foundation laid in fourth grade with more depth and breadth. The full scope of Texas history is examined, including the cultures of Native Americans living in Texas prior to European exploration and the eras of mission building, colonization, revolution, republic, and statehood. In each era, the focus is on key individuals, events, issues, and their impact. In the geography strand, students identify the regions of Texas and the distribution of population within and among the regions and explain the factors that led Texas to change from a rural to an urban society. Students describe the structure and functions of municipal, county, and state governments, explain the influence of the U.S. Constitution on the Texas Constitution, and examine the rights and responsibilities of Texas citizens. Students examine primary and secondary sources to observe the richly diverse cultural background of Texas as they identify the different racial and ethnic groups who settled in Texas to build a republic and then a state. Students also analyze the impact of various scientific discoveries and technological innovations such as barbed wire and oil and gas industries on the development of Texas.